Below are some other important terms to know. While you can click/tap on them to see a brief definition, you are encouraged to find additional information on your own.
Handwritten, wall-mounted posters using large-sized Chinese characters, used as a means of protest, propaganda, and popular communication.
Of or characteristic of the middle class, typically with reference to its perceived materialistic values or conventional attitudes.
Anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part. The adjective, "counter-revolutionary", pertains to movements that would restore the state of affairs, or the principles, that prevailed during a pre-revolutionary era.
Cult of Personality
arises when an individual uses mass media, propaganda, or other methods to create an idealized, heroic, and at times worshipful image, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.
Five Black Categories
During the period of the Chinese Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) in the People’s Republic of China, Mao Zedong identified groups that he considered enemies of the Revolution (and thus himself). The phrase Five Black Categories referred to the following five political identities. These groups were:
Landlords / Rich farmers (peasants) / Counter-revolutionaries / Bad-influencers / Rightists
Great Leap Forward
An economic and social campaign by the Communist Party of China (CPC) from 1958 to 1961. The campaign was led by Mao Zedong and aimed to rapidly transform the country from an agrarian economy into a socialist society through rapid industrialization and collectivization.
Instrumental in creating the foundations for Mao Zedong's cult of personality in the early 1960s, and was rewarded for his service in the Cultural Revolution by being named Mao's designated successor as the sole Vice Chairman of the Communist Party of China, from 1969 until his death.
A political theory derived from the teachings of the Chinese political leader Mao Zedong. The essential difference between Maoism and other forms of Marxism is that Mao claimed that peasants should be the essential revolutionary class in China, because, contrary to their industrial working "comrades", they were more suited to establishing a successful revolution and socialist regime in China.
A term for the class of wage-earners (especially industrial workers), in a capitalist society, whose only possession of significant material value is their labor-power (their ability to work).
Known in Chinese as "up to the mountains and down to the farms," the urban-to-rural youth migration was part of China's decade-long Cultural Revolution, a social political movement initiated to implement Communism and Maoism in China by eliminating any capitalist, feudalistic and cultural elements.
In 1969, the tone and direction of the Cultural Revolution shifted dramatically. For the next seven years, until Mao Zedong's death, he tried to remake the government, and the country, after his own vision.
Cox, Patrick. “How to Apologize for the Cultural Revolution without Blaming the Communist Party.” The World, PRI, 7 Apr. 2014, www.pri.org/stories/2014-04-07/how-apologize-cultural-revolution-without-blaming-communist-party.
Hu, Yafei, and L. James Hammond. “My Youth in China: Growing Up in the Cultural Revolution.” Home of Philosophy and Literature: Nietzsche, Shakespeare, and Hammond, 2017, www.ljhammond.com/essays/my-youth.htm.