Wilkerson, Isabel. “The Long-Lasting Legacy of the Great Migration.” Smithsonian.com, Smithsonian Institution, 1 Sept. 2016, www.smithsonianmag.com/history/long-lasting-legacy-great-migration-180960118/.
Like so many before them, the men and women who were part of the Great Migration felt compelled to migrate to escape persecution and to search out economic opportunity. In the 20th Century, this meant the atrocities of the Jim Crow South combined with the employment opportunities afforded by labor shortages in the Industrial North. The combination led millions to leave the only world they knew for a new and uncertain life.
Klein, Christopher. “Last Hired, First Fired: How the Great Depression Affected African Americans.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 18 Apr. 2018, www.history.com/news/last-hired-first-fired-how-the-great-depression-affected-african-americans.
Arnesen, Eric. “Civil Rights and the Transformation of Black Politics.” The Great Depression. Blackwood, New Jersey, itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/civil-rights-and-the-transformation-of-black-politics/id423789610?i=1000091774050&mt=2.
The Roosevelt administration could not pass legislation for the New Deal without the votes of the southern delegations. In the tradition of the Solid South they acted as a unified bloc. As a price for their votes they demanded and got modifications to social and economic programs that cut racial minorities out of the picture.
The nation’s most devastating economic downturn, the Great Depression, affected blacks more adversely than any other group of Americans. Throughout this economic crisis unemployment rates were considerably higher for blacks than for whites.
“The Great Depression.” NJ State Library, New Jersey State Library, 22 May 2003, www.njstatelib.org/research_library/new_jersey_resources/highlights/african_american_history_curriculum/unit_11_great_depression/.
Regarded as the leader of the largest organized mass movement in black history and the progenitor of the modern Black Is Beautiful revival that reached its apogee in the 1960s and 1970s in the United States.
We should recognize Robinson’s contributions on the diamond and the ways he maintained his outward composure while facing blatant racism. However, we must also remember the courageous and confrontational moments when Robinson openly pushed back against Jim Crow segregation in the United States.
Teutsch, Matthew. “Celebrating the Life and Activism of Jackie Robinson.” Black Perspectives, African American Intellectual History Society, 9 May 2017, www.aaihs.org/celebrating-the-life-and-activism-of-jackie-robinson/.