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African American Rights Movements: Civil Rights Movement
When Rosa Parks refused on the afternoon of Dec. 1, 1955, to give up her bus seat so that a white man could sit, it is unlikely that she fully realized the forces she had set into motion and the controversy that would soon swirl around her.
The city of Montgomery gave birth to America’s modern civil rights era, and a young preacher emerged as a symbol of international significance. 381 Days: The Montgomery Bus Boycott Story offers a gripping account of the men and women whose non-violent approach to political and social change matured into a weapon of equality for all.
Smith, David. “Little Rock Nine: the Day Young Students Shattered Racial Segregation.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 24 Sept. 2017, www.theguardian.com/world/2017/sep/24/little-rock-arkansas-school-segregation-racism.
Among the most lasting and indelible images of the civil rights movement were the nine black teenagers who had to be escorted by federal troops past an angry white mob and through the doors of Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, on Sept. 25, 1957.
Haines, Errin, and Andrew DeMillo. “Segregation Lingers in US Schools 60 Years after Little Rock.” AP News, Associated Press, 24 Sept. 2017, apnews.com/76edd3fc67704c1f97b6fc2f721aecab/Segregation-lingers-in-US-schools-60-years-after-Little-Rock.
From May until November 1961, more than 400 black and white Americans risked their lives—and many endured savage beatings and imprisonment—for simply traveling together on buses and trains as they journeyed through the Deep South.
It was just like the old days, when Mississippi was burning. Freedom Riders were back on Greyhound buses – and police cars with blue lights flashing and sirens blaring were waiting for them. This time, 50 years on, there was nothing to be scared of. Mississippi was welcoming the civil rights activists, and the police were providing an honor guard to ease their way.
MacAskill, Ewen. “Freedom Riders Hit the Road Again, 50 Years after US Civil Rights Milestone.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 27 May 2011, www.theguardian.com/world/2011/may/27/freedom-riders-50-years-mississippi.
“March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.” Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Global Freedom Struggle, The King Institute, kingencyclopedia.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_march_on_washington_for_jobs_and_freedom/.
This program listed the events scheduled at the Lincoln Memorial during the August 28, 1963, March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. The highlight of the march, which attracted 250,000 people, was Martin Luther King's "I Have a Dream" speech.
Fletcher, Michael, and Ryan R. Reed. “An Oral History of the March on Washington.” Smithsonian.com, Smithsonian Institution, July 2013, www.smithsonianmag.com/history/oral-history-march-washington-180953863/.
Stoddard, Katy. “Selma to Montgomery: Martin Luther King and the March for Freedom.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 20 Mar. 2015, www.theguardian.com/us-news/from-the-archive-blog/2015/mar/20/selma-montgomery-freedom-march-martin-luther-king-1965.
This exhibit features the stunning and historic photographs of Stephen Somerstein, documenting the Selma to Montgomery Civil Rights March in March 1965. Somerstein was a student in City College of New York’s night school and Picture Editor of his student newspaper when he traveled to Alabama to document the March.
In 1996, The Seattle Times created a web page in tribute to Dr. King, collecting the story of his life, photographs of the times in which he lived, and perspectives from politicians, activists, and ordinary citizens on his tremendous legacy. Now, 20 years later, they have created an updated home for that tribute.
American civil rights leader and politician best known for his chairmanship of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and for leading the march that was halted by police violence on the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama, in 1965, a landmark event in the history of the civil rights movement that became known as “Bloody Sunday.”