In research papers, you should quote from a source when you:
You should summarize or paraphrase when you:
A paraphrase is the rewording of something written or spoken by someone else. To paraphrase, follow these steps:
Common knowledge, or "what everybody knows", is the only thing that does not need to be cited.
How does one know, however, "what everybody knows"?
In one field, a fact that is considered "common knowledge" to someone within that field, will not be considered common knowledge to someone outside of the field.
Generally, for a fact to be considered common knowledge, it has to meet two criteria:
Ideally, it should meet a third criteria--that is, the fact may be found in general reference sources--general encyclopedias or almanacs.
With controversial issues, common knowledge is factual and must involve agreement among most people. "It is NOT common knowledge that drilling will affect caribou migration or feeding habits." While evidence may exist to support this statement, there is not enough agreement to make it "common knowledge."
A quote is the reproduction of the words of the original author. To quote, follow the steps below:
According to Lennie, "[...] I got you to look after me, and you got me to look after you, and that's why" (Steinbeck 14).
A summary is a brief statement of the main points of a source. To summarize, follow the steps below: