"The unexamined life is not worth living."
Born: about 470 BC in Athens
Died: 399 BC in Athens (aged about 71)
- Credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy
- First moral philosopher in the Western tradition
- Known for the Socratic Method
- Credited with saying "The unexamined life is not worth living"
- Plato was a disciple (student) of Socrates
"I am a citizen of the world."
Born: around 412 BC in Sinope
Died: 323 BC in Corinth (aged about 89)
- A controversial figure
- Known for ascetic, or very simple, lifestyle
- Called himself a cosmopolitan and a citizen of the world, rather than claiming allegiance to one place
- Diogenes' ideas nfluenced Alexander the Great and the development of Stoicism
- Known for Cynic Philosophy and Cosmopolitanism
"Wonder is the feeling of a philosopher, and philosophy begins in wonder."
Born: 420s BC in Athens
Died: 348 or 347 BC in Athens (age c. 80)
- Founded the Academy, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world
- Considered the founder of Western political philosophy
- Was a disciple of Socrates and influenced also influenced by Pythagoras
- Aristotle was a disciple of Plato
- Known for allegories (such as the Allegory of the Cave), and works including the Republic and Dialogues
"In all things of nature there is something of the marvelous."
Born: 384 BC in Stagira, Chalcidian League
Died: 322 BC in Euboea, Macedonian Empire (aged approx. 62)
- Was a disciple of Plato
- Founder of the Lyceum, the Peripatetic school of philosophy, and the Aristotelian tradition
- Taught Alexander the Great and Theophrastus
- Known for Aristotelian philosophy, Syllogism, Theory of the soul, Virtue ethics
- His philosophy has had influence on almost every form of knowledge in the West and continues to be a subject of philosophical discussion.
"The greatest reward of righteousness is peace of mind."
Born: February 341 BC in Samos, Greece
Died: 270 BC in Athens, Greece (aged about 72)
- Epicurus and his followers were known for eating simple meals and discussing philosophy.
- Openly allowed women to join the school as a matter of policy.
- For Epicurus, the purpose of philosophy was to help people be happy.
"We have two ears and one mouth, so we should listen more than we say."
Born: 334 BC in Citium, Cyprus
Died: 262 BC in Athens (aged about 72)
- Zeno was the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy.
- Based on the moral ideas of the Cynics, Stoicism emphasized \peace of mind gained from living a life of virtue in accordance with nature.
- Also known for ideas such as the three branches of philosophy (physics, ethics, logic), rationality of human nature, and world citizenship