In 1860, the Bureau of Indian Affairs opened the first Indian Boarding School. By the 1880s, there were 60 schools with over 6000 students. The goal of these schools was assimilation. Students lived away from their families and their language and culture were not permitted. The schools continued well into the 20th century. It wasn't until the Indian Child Welfare Act in 1978 that parents were allowed to prevent their children from being sent to these boarding schools. The resources here will allow you to learn more about this period in history and its lasting effects.
Source: "History & Culture: Boarding Schools." Northern Plains Reservation Aid. http://www.nativepartnership.org/site/PageServer?pagename=airc_hist_boardingschools