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 Although we often focus on websites when we discuss evaluating sources, you should not assume that just because something is written in a book or in an academic journal that it must be true. All sources should be read with a critical eye.

Five Ws

1. Who

Who is the author? Are they an expert?

2. What 

What information is provided? Is this information consistent with other sources?

3. When

When was the information published?

4. Where

Where did the author find their information? Is there a bibliography or works cited list? 

5. Why

Why did the author publish this information? (To educate or inform? To persuade? To sell a product?)

Adapted from Kathy Schrock's Critical Evaluation resources.

 Fact Checking Resources


An independent fact-checking journalism website aimed at bringing you the truth in politics. Every fact-check includes analysis of the claim, an explanation of reasoning and a list of links to all sources.



Snopes was founded in 1995 by writer and researcher David Mikkelson out of interest in researching urban legends. Independently funded and apolitical, Snopes has become a well-respected resource for research into urban legends, rumors, hoaxes, and fake news stories.


Washington Post Fact Checker

Fact checking from the Washington Post newspaper by award-winning journalist Glenn Kessler.

A nonpartisan, nonprofit “consumer advocate” for voters that aims to reduce the level of deception and confusion in U.S. politics.

Fact Checking Online

Website Credibility